Thursday, August 27, 2020
Cunto se demora la green card por trabajo El tiempo de demora de la tarjeta de residencia por trabajo varÃ£ a desde apenas unos meses de tramitaciÃ£ ³n ordinaria hasta esperas factors de varios aÃ£ ±os. La diferencia radica en la categorÃ£ a de visa de trabajo por la que se obtiene la tarjeta de residencia. (Y en algunos casos tambiÃ£ ©n afecta el paÃ£ s de origen). CategorÃ£ as en las que no roughage espera para la green card por razones de trabajo Cada aÃ£ ±o financial se conceden 140,000 tarjetas de residencia por motivos de empleo, divididas en diferentes categorÃ£ as. Las denominadas 1, 2, 4 y 5 no tienen que esperar a que haya visas disponibles, porque el nÃ£ ºmero de visados es predominant al de peticiones. Pero, Ã ¿quÃ£ © empleos estn comprendidos en esas categorÃ£ as? Anualmente se conceden hasta un mximo de 40,000 visas en la categorÃ£ a 1. Dentro de esta roughage tres tipos de empleos posibles: EB-1 (a), para la crema de la crema profesionalmente hablando. Pueden aplicar por ellas personas extranjeras con habilidades extraordinarias en las Artes, las Ciencias, el Deporte, la EducaciÃ£ ³n o los Negocios. Child profesionales tan excepcionales que no necesitan tener una oferta de trabajo. Es decir, pueden aplicar ellos mismos por la tarjeta de residencia, sin patrocinador. EB-1 (b), para profesores universitarios o investigadores sobresalientes con al menos de tres aÃ£ ±os de experiencia profesional reconocida internacionalmente. Es necesario que tengan una oferta de trabajo y que la solicitud para la tarjeta de residencia la presente una universidad o un instituto, pÃ£ ºblico o privado, de investigaciÃ£ ³n. EB-1 (c), para ejecutivos o gerentes que lleven al menos tres aÃ£ ±os trabajando en el extranjero para una obedient o subsidiaria de una empresa History of the U.S. Tampoco feed tiempo de espera para la categorÃ£ a 2 (EB-2), para la que feed reservada 40,000 tarjetas de residencia por aÃ£ ±o financial. Pueden beneficiarse los profesionales con una maestrÃ£ a o doctorado o, en el caso de tener sÃ£ ³lo una licenciatura, debern tener cinco aÃ£ ±os de experiencia laboral. TambiÃ£ ©n encajan en esta categorÃ£ a las personas con habilidades excepcionales en los Negocios, las Artes y las Ciencias. Es decir, deben ser muy superiores a la media en su campo. Aunque generalmente se necesita una oferta de trabajo y que el empleador solicite la tarjeta de residencia para ellos, feed casos en los que el extranjero que cumple con los requisitos arriba mencionados puede solicitar la green card por sÃ£ mismos si puede probar que la aprobaciÃ£ ³n de su solicitud servirÃ£ a los intereses nacionales de los Estados Unidos. De hecho, feed abogados especialistas en este tipo de casos que se conocen con las iniciales NIW (por Waiver por interÃ£ ©s nacional, en inglÃ£ ©s). Otra categorÃ£ a sin tiempo de espera es la 4 (EB-4), que child conocidos como Emigrantes Especiales. Es necesario que el empleador americano solicite la tarjeta de residencia para ellos mediante la planilla I-360. Pueden beneficiarse por esta categorÃ£ a: Sacerdotes, monjas, rabinos y otros trabajadores religiosos.Ex trabajadores del Canal de Panam.Ciertos miembros del EjÃ£ ©rcito de los Estados Unidos.Empleados jubilados de organizaciones internacionales y dependientes.Asimismo, trabajadores en el extranjero del Gobierno estadounidense. En este Ã ºltimo caso, la peticiÃ£ ³n de la green card no debe hacerse mediante la I-360, sino que debe utilizarse la planilla DS-1884. Por Ã ºltimo, los inversores dentro de la categorÃ£ a 5 (EB-5) tampoco estn sujetos a disponibilidad de visas y espera. Roughage que resaltar que aunque no feed tiempo de espera por visas en las categorÃ£ as arriba mencionadas, feed unos meses de demora en la tramitaciÃ£ ³n ordinaria. Tiempo de espera para la categorÃ£ a 3 y otros trabajadores Los trabajadores que obtienen la tarjeta de residencia por la categorÃ£ a 3 (EB-3) o por la de otros trabajadores esperan en estos momentos cuatro aÃ£ ±os y medio, para los casos de ciudadanos de LatinoamÃ£ ©rica y EspaÃ£ ±a. Otros paÃ£ ses, como India o China tienen tiempos de espera superiores. En la categorÃ£ a 3 y en la de otros trabajadores recaen: Profesionales con licenciatura (B.A. o B.S.).Personas sin estudios superiores pero con una habilidad profesional particular y experiencia laboral de al menos dos aÃ ±os.Personas sin habilidades especiales pero cuyo trabajo requiere una experiencia laboral de al menos dos aÃ£ ±os. Para esta subcategorÃ£ a no pueden otorgarse ms de 10,000 tarjetas de residencia por aÃ£ ±o financial. Las personas que estn esperando por una green card en esta categorÃ£ a pueden verificar los tiempos de espera en el BoletÃ£ n de Visas del Departamento de Estado, teniendo en cuenta la fecha de prioridad de su aplicaciÃ£ ³n. Por Ã ºltimo, tener en cuenta que para esta categorÃ£ a es siempre necesario obtener una certificaciÃ£ ³n laboral y tener una oferta de empleo y que el empleador estadounidense realice la peticiÃ£ ³n de la green card mediante la planilla I-140. Se recomienda tomarÃ¢ este test para verificarÃ¢ que se tienen los conocimientos necesarios sobre green card.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Web of Things Paradigm Presentation As indicated by 2016 measurable conjecture, there are practically 4.77 billion number of cell phone clients in internationally and it is relied upon to pass the five billion by 2019.  The fundamental characteristic of this critical expanding pattern is because of expanding fame of cell phones. In 2012, about a fourth of every single versatile client were cell phone clients and this will be multiplied by 2018 which mean there are be more than 2.6 million cell phone clients. Of these cell phone clients more than quarter are utilizing Samsung and Apple cell phone. Until 2016, there are 2.2 million and 2 million of applications in google application store and apple store separately. Such hazardous development of applications gives potential advantage to designer and furthermore organizations. There are about $88.3 billion income for portable application showcase. Unmistakable types of the IT business evaluated that the IoT worldview will create $1.7 trillion in esteem added to the worldwide economy in 2019. By 2020 the Internet of Things gadget will dramatically increase the size of the cell phone, PC, tablet, associated vehicle, and the wearable market joined. Advancements and administrations having a place with the Internet of Things have produced worldwide incomes in $4.8 trillion of every 2012 and will reach $8.9 trillion by 2020, developing at a compound yearly rate (CAGR) of 7.9%. From this great market development, malignant assaults likewise have been expanded drastically. As per Kaspersky Security Network(KSN) information report, there has been in excess of 171,895,830 malignant assaults from online assets among word wide. In second quarter of 2016, they have recognized 3,626,458 pernicious establishment bundles which is 1.7 occasions more than first quarter of 2016. Kind of these assaults are wide, for example, RiskTool, AdWare, Trojan-SMS, Trojan-Dropper, Trojan, Trojan-Ransom,Trojan-Spy,Trojan-Banker,Trojan-Downloader,Backdoor, and so on.. http://resources.infosecinstitute.com/web things-much-uncovered digital dangers/#gref Sadly, the quick dispersion of the Internet of Things worldview isn't joined by a fast improvement of productive security answers for those savvy objects, while the criminal environment is investigating the innovation as new assault vectors. Mechanical arrangements having a place with the Internet of Things are commandingly entering our every day life. Lets think, for instance, of wearable gadgets or the SmartTV. The best issue for the advancement of the worldview is the low impression of the digital dangers and the conceivable effect on protection. Cybercrime knows about the troubles looked by the IT people group to characterize a common procedure to moderate digital dangers, and hence, it is conceivable that the quantity of digital assaults against savvy gadgets will quickly increment. As long there is cash to be made hoodlums will keep on making the most of chances to pick our pockets. While the fight with cybercriminals can appear to be overwhelming, its a battle we can win. We just need to break one connection in their chain to bring them to an abrupt halt. A few hints to progress: Send fixes rapidly Wipe out superfluous applications Run as a non-advantaged client Increment worker mindfulness Perceive our frail focuses Diminishing the danger surface As of now, both major application store organizations, Google and Apple, adopts distinctive situation to strategy spam application location. One takes a functioning and the other with inactive methodology. There is solid solicitation of malware recognition from worldwide Foundation (Previous Study) The paper Early Detection of Spam Mobile Apps was distributed by dr. Surangs. S with his partners at the 2015 International World Wide Web gatherings. In this gathering, he has been underlined significance of early discovery of malware and furthermore presented a novel thought of how to recognize spam applications. Each market works with their approaches to erased application from their store and this is done through constant human intercession. They need to discover reason and example from the applications erased and recognized spam applications. The chart essentially delineates how they approach the early spam discovery utilizing manual marking. Information Preparation New dataset was set up from past investigation . The 94,782 applications of beginning seed were curated from the rundown of applications got from more than 10,000 cell phone clients. Around 5 months, specialist has been gathered metadata from Goole Play Store about application name, application depiction, and application classification for all the applications and disposed of non-English portrayal application from the metadata. Inspecting and Labeling Process One of significant procedure of their examination was manual naming which was the principal approach proposed and this permits to distinguish the explanation for their evacuation. Manual naming was continued around 1.5 month with 3 analysts at NICTA. Every analyst marked by heuristic checkpoint focuses and larger part reason of casting a ballot were signified as following Graph3. They recognized 9 key reasons with heuristic checkpoints. These full rundown checkpoints can be discover from their specialized report. (http://qurinet.ucdavis.edu/bars/conf/www15.pdf) In this report, we just rundown checkpoints of the explanation as spam. Graph3. Named spam information with checkpoint reason. Checkpoint S1-Does the application portrayal depict the application work plainly and succinctly? 100 word bigrams and trigrams were physically led from past investigations which portray application usefulness. There is high likelihood of spam applications not having clear depiction. Thusly, 100 expressions of bigrams and trigrams were contrasted and every depiction and checked recurrence of event. Checkpoint S2-Does the application depiction contain an excess of subtleties, indistinguishable content, or irrelevant content? artistic style, known as Stylometry, was utilized to delineate. In study, 16 highlights were recorded in table 2. Table 2. Highlights related with Checkpoint 2 Highlight 1 Complete number of characters in the portrayal 2 Complete number of words in the portrayal 3 Complete number of sentences in the portrayal 4 Normal word length 5 Normal sentence length 6 Level of capitalized characters 7 Level of accentuations 8 Level of numeric characters 9 Level of normal English words 10 Level of individual pronouns 11 Level of passionate words 12 Level of incorrectly spelled word 13 Level of words with letter set and numeric characters 14 Programmed clarity index(AR) 15 Flesch clarity score(FR) For the portrayal, highlight choice of avaricious technique [ ] was utilized with max profundity 10 of choice tree order. The presentation was advanced by awry F-Measure  They found that Feature number 2, 3, 8, 9, and 10 were most discriminativeand spam applications will in general have less longwinded application portrayal contrast with non-spam applications. About 30% spam application had under 100 words portrayal. Checkpoint SÃ¢ 3 Does the application depiction contain an observable reiteration of words or catchphrases? They utilized jargon lavishness to conclude spam applications. Jargon Richness(VR) = Specialist expected low VR for spam applications as indicated by redundancy of watchwords. Be that as it may, result was inverse to desire. Shockingly VR near 1 was probably going to be spam applications and none of non-spam application had high VR result. [ ] This may be because of concise style of application portrayal among spam applications. Checkpoint S4 Does the application depiction contain random watchwords or references? Basic spamming strategy is adding disconnected catchphrase to build output of application that subject of watchword can differ altogether. New technique was proposed for these restrictions which is tallying the referencing of mainstream applications name from applications depiction. In past research name of top-100 applications were utilized for checking number of referencing. Just 20% spam applications have referenced the well known applications more than once in their portrayal. Though, 40 to 60 % of non-spam had notice more than once. They found that a significant number of top-applications have web-based social networking interface and fan pages to keep association with clients. Hence, theories can be one of identifier to separate spam of non-spam applications. Checkpoint S5 Does the application portrayal contain over the top references to different applications from a similar engineer? Number of times a designers other application names show up. Just 10 spam applications were considered as this checkpoint in light of the fact that the portrayal contained connects to the application instead of the application names. Checkpoint S6 Does the engineer have different applications with roughly a similar depiction? For this checkpoint, 3 highlights were thought of: The all out number of different applications created by same engineer. The all out number of applications that written in English depiction to gauge portrayal comparability. Have depiction Cosine similarity(s) of over 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% from a similar designer. Pre-process was required to figure the cosine likeness: [ ] Right off the bat, changing over the words in lower case and expelling accentuation images. At that point adjust each record with word recurrence vector. Cosine likeness condition: http://blog.christianperone.com/2013/09/AI cosine-likeness for-vector-space-models-part-iii/ They saw that the most discriminative of the likeness between application portrayals. Just 10% 15% of the non-spam had 60% of portrayal likeness between 5 different applications that created by same engineer. Then again, over 27% of the spam applications had 60% of portrayal similitude result. This proof demonstrates the propensity of the spam applications numerous cone with comparative application depictions. Checkpoint S7 Does the application identifier (applied) bode well and have some pertinence to the usefulness of the application or does it give off an impression of being auto created? Application identifier(appid) is novel identifier in Google Play Store, name followed by the Java bundle naming show. Model, for the facebook , appid is com.facebook.katana. For 10% of t
Quantitative research examination - Essay Example Judgments of the viability of agony the board, adequacy of medical attendant drove diabetic center, adequacy of suitable or explicit dressing techniques in the board of venous ulcer, viability of expert medical caretaker professional in the mishap and crisis as an essential parental figure are only not many of the various guides to evaluate proof and change practice dependent on proof (Sousa et al., 2007, 502-507). Observational and Interventional Research Designs: The examiner leading observational research watches both the free and the reliant factors, when there is deficient information about a marvel, or for moral reasons or something else, an observational structure is generally appropriate. In test investigate, analysts effectively mediate and make the autonomous variable, which implies that individuals in the example will be presented to various medications or conditions (Driessnack, et al., 2007, 684-688). Exploratory and semi test structures: Experimental plans give solid proof about the theory and give a causal connection among autonomous and subordinate factors. ... Be that as it may, semi trial plans need randomization to treatment gatherings, which portrays genuine tests. Semi tests, along these lines, are not as ground-breaking as trials in building up causal associations among intercessions and results (Coughlan et al, 2007, 658-663). Contrasts among Inferential and Descriptive Statistics: Statistics are either engaging or inferential. Expressive insights are utilized to portray and blend information. Midpoints and rates are instances of elucidating measurements. All things considered, when such records are determined on information from a populace, they are called parameters. Inferential insights then again is utilized to draw a few surmisings out of the numerical information (Zellner et al., 2007, 55-59). The title of the examination article picked by the writer to base this task is Randomized controlled preliminary to analyze careful adjustment of the lumbar spine with a concentrated restoration program for patients with incessant low back torment: the MRC spine adjustment preliminary by Fairbank and associates distributed in the British Medical Journal (Fairbank et al., 2005, 1233). Reason: The motivation behind this specific examination is to evaluate the clinical adequacy of careful adjustment as spinal combination contrasted and that with concentrated adjustment for patients with incessant low back agony. The structure clearly was a multicentric randomized controlled preliminary (Cook et al., 2008, 128-133). Randomization or irregular task includes setting subjects in bunches aimlessly. Arbitrary basically implies that each subject has an equivalent possibility of being doled out to any gathering to keep away from precise predisposition in the gatherings that could influence the reliant variable. Randomization remains the most reliable and adequate technique for
Friday, August 21, 2020
Haiti Development - Research Paper Example In spite of the fact that autonomous some time before, the economy of the nation is still in the battling stage. As indicated by the ongoing reports, the per capita pay of the nation in 2009 has been a small $ 790 that tantamounts to an ostensible total of $ 2 every day for each individual. Having such terrible showing on the monetary front, the nation has practically 80% of the populace underneath the destitution level while just a large portion of the populace is accepted to be proficient. The nation is essentially a rural country however dissimilar to a large number of different countries of the world, horticultural populace of Haiti doesn't approach the advanced methods and procedures of farming. This is pervasive as while over 65% of the populace is locked in with horticulture, the calling yields even under 30% of the GDP for the nation (Foreign and Common Wealth Office, Ã¢â¬Å"HaitiÃ¢â¬ ). The extraordinary lackluster showing of the economy of Haiti has its connected results like that of oppressed human asset advancement and that of fixing the rundown of debasement. The other unmistakable negative mark of the nation has been the convergence of riches. It is seen that top 1% of the populace controls practically 50% of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s riches. The state of the economy is additionally portrayed by the prime wellspring of acquiring for the administration which has been the outside obligation throughout recent years. In 2005, another conceived child in Haiti had a risk of US $ 169 (due to outside obligation) however as of late the worldwide bodies like that of IMF and World Bank have discounted the outer obligation (IMF, Ã¢â¬Å"Haiti: Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Ã¢â¬ Completion Point DocumentÃ¢â¬ ). The poor nation of Haiti has been additionally influenced by the grievous condition on numerous occasions. In spite of the fact that the nation was honored with profound woodland and had rich widely varied vegetation, the reducing economy of the country has brought about cutting of a large portion of such
Conflict Essay Topics That Will Help You Write High Quality College EssaysIf you're not quite sure about how to get started on your college essay, you'll find conflict essay topics that are both challenging and exciting. While no topic is right for every writer, there are a few that have proven successful for generations of students.Writing a conflict story isn't as easy as it sounds. This is because it involves bringing something to light, which is quite difficult in the context of college writing. That being said, there are several topics that can be used when it comes to conflict essay topics.One of the most recognized conflicts for students to consider is the one about World War II. There are many different ways to approach this topic, including using the letters of the alphabet or even referencing the series of battles that took place during this time. Students should explore many different strategies to approach the topic, and they should keep in mind that their essay should in clude their own perspective, as well.Another conflict that many students tend to shy away from is the present tense. They may want to use a past tense to describe things happening today, but they should also consider using a present tense when they are writing about things that happened recently. It doesn't make any sense to write about something that has already happened, so students will find that many writing techniques will help them achieve this goal.Many students also feel that writing about an argument isn't the best way to use conflict situation. The idea here is to present information that presents both sides of the argument. It's important to point out the pros and cons of both sides before you wrap up the essay. Some writers also prefer to put quotations throughout their essay to help them stand out.In the world of business, conflict essays often relate to work conflicts, such as salary negotiations. The student who is trying to get a better offer on his or her next raise or who wants to know what the expectations are for being promoted should consider using this type of essay. Other examples of this type of essay include those that explore topics like getting a promotion, keeping or losing a job, or any other type of job change.English writers usually don't use writing techniques like quotation marks and adverbs when they are discussing business subjects, but this is the best way to describe the entire scenario for students who are taking business courses. Students should avoid using adjectives in their writing, and they should also avoid using concrete or vocabulary words to describe abstract concepts. Instead, they should use less-than-familiar vocabulary words, which will help them to effectively communicate their ideas.When it comes to conflict essay topics, there are some basic steps that students should follow to ensure that their essays are as useful as possible. By finding topics that are meaningful to them, students can create essays that will help them express their thoughts and ideas about a particular subject.
Monday, June 29, 2020
The hotel industry has long struggled to establish what truly makes hotel employees motivated and satisfied with their jobs. High employee turnover in the hotel industry is believed to be due to the nature of the work, its low pay, and its long working hours. Thus, to effectively address this turnover problem, employee motivation could be an on-going and critical issue for managers in hotel operations. (Chiang and Jang 2008) Chitiris (1990, 293) strongly emphasized the importance of motivation by stating that Ã¢â¬Å"Motivation is the prime determinant of behaviour at work and that high ability and high levels of job training will not result in high performance if the individual is completely de-motivated or under-motivated at work.Ã¢â¬ A review of the literature indicates that there are problems in the hotel industry such as inadequate pay, low job security, limited training and development opportunities, and excessive turnover. (Cheng and Brown 1998; Deery and Shaw 1999; Pizam and Thornburg 2000; Karatepe and Uludag 2007). There are also problems pertaining to unsocial work hours and workloads in the hotel industry. (Karatepe and Sokmen 2006; Rowley and Purcell 2001; Karatepe and Uludag 2007) The biggest challenge of employee motivation is that employees often motivate themselves, based on their perception of what they want to achieve and how they can achieve it. Howev er, managers who are aware of what their employees want from work can design a work environment that is able to accommodate employees needs and desires. At the same time, well-informed managers may be able to avoid common pitfalls that tend to reduce employee motivation. (Simons and Enz 1995) Riley, Ladkin, and Szivas (2002) cited in Taylor and Davies (2004) that according to the World Tourism Organisation, the worlds largest industry sector is the tourism and hospitality industry. Despite the concern about quantifying the definition of tourism as an industry, for the purpose of estimating employment it is considered to be one and a half times larger than the next industry. The accommodation sector has continued to exhibit growth over the last few decades, although at various rates, and is forecasted to continue this growth both in development and employment numbers. Weaver (1988) argued that hotel managers have experimented with various motivational theories and methods to ad dress the problem of declining productivity among their hourly workers. Most of these experiments have had minimal success, because they are based on reward systems that have little meaning for hourly workers. Ã¢â¬Å"If a company knows why its employees come to work on time, stay with the company for their full working lives, and are productive, then it might be able to ensure that all of its employees behave in that wayÃ¢â¬ (Kovach 1987, 58). Such a company would have a competitive advantage over competitors that may be suffering from high absenteeism and turnover, costly re-training programs, and production slowdowns. Wiley (1997) emphasized that in the case of a lack of ability, appropriate training can be employed. Altering the environment to promote higher performance is the key in the event of environmental problems. However, if motivation is the problem, the solution is more complicated and testing. For motivational problems, the best source of information would b e the employee. Responses by employees regarding what ignites and sustains their desire to work may lead the employer to redesign jobs, increase pay, change the working environment, or give more credit for work done. The key is that managers avoid the assumption that what motivates them, motivates their employees as well. If hotel managers are able to satisfy their employees by understanding their underlying motivations better, it will play a part in retaining and motivating hotel employees and thus improve customer satisfaction in the long run. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) According to Robbins et al. (2008, 180), motivation can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.Ã¢â¬ Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries, and is generally the focus of motivation. However, high intensity is unlikely to lead to favourable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channe lled in a direction that benefits the organization. Effort should directed towards, and is consistent with, the organizations goals. Finally, the persistence dimension of motivation is a measure of how long a person can maintain effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. Lee-Ross (2005, 255) elaborates on the significant link between motivation in the workplace and practical organizational-based outcomes such as productivity, commitment, job satisfaction, intent to stay and burnout. Fundamentally, Hackman and Oldhams (1976) theory of motivation is concerned with Ã¢â¬Å"internal work motivationÃ¢â¬ whereby a continuous cycle of motivation happens within the employee. In other words, the more effort expended on a job, the more motivated they would become.(Chiang and Jang 2008; Lee-Ross 2005) While on the job, motivation is important for individuals, and in some theories (e.g. expectancy or equity), researchers predict variations in th e evaluations of such outcomes as pay. But the evaluation of pay usually is just one of many outcomes and is frequently measured with little accuracy. (Mitchell and Mickel 1999) Besides its high labour turnover and labour-intensive nature, the hotel industry is often characterised by low job security, low pay, shift duties and limited opportunities for promotion. The studies of Lee-Ross (1993) added that these characteristics seemed to be more extreme in the seasonal sector. Understanding hotel employees attitudes and motivations has therefore become a useful area of research in the industry. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) Iverson and Deery (1997, 71) noted that Ã¢â¬Å"Turnover culture is best characterised as the acceptance of turnover as part of the workgroup norm.Ã¢â¬ Alternatively, it is a belief held by employees that turnover behaviour is quite appropriate especially in the hotel industry. In the hotel industry, employees strongly require intelligence, job knowledge a nd skills, and time management ability. However, without motivation, an employee will not advance in his or her career. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) The amount of effort an employee spends toward accomplishing the hotels goals depends on whether the employee believes that this effort will lead to the satisfaction of his or her own needs and desires. When a need or desire is unsatisfied, a person experiences tension that drives him or her to satisfy the need. People work hard to satisfy their needs and desires, and in this way they reduce their tension. From this straightforward approach to motivating employees, the key to facilitating motivation lies with managers accurately understanding what their employees want from their work. Using that knowledge, managers can more effectively channel employee effort toward organizational goals.Ã¢â¬ (Simons and Enz 1995) A category of motivational models is based on the assumption that personal growth and achievement is a primary mot ivating force among employees. These models emphasize on giving ones best efforts to grow and develop as an individual or to advance within the organization. (Weaver 1988) This category of motivational theories includes Maslows theory of self-actualization and Herzbergs theory of maintenance factors and motivational factors. Maslows theory of self-actualisation has no relevance in the work environment of hourly employees. On the other hand, career-oriented and salaried employees are more likely to be motivated by assurances that the organization will provide opportunities to actualize their full potential. (Weaver 1988) Herzberg divided working conditions into two sets of factors: maintenance factors and motivational factors. According to Herzberg, company policies, technical supervision, interpersonal relationships, salary and status, job security, working conditions, and personal life are maintenance factors; while advancement, recognition, achievement, possibility for perso nal growth, responsibility, and the work itself are motivational factors. Herzberg believes that maintenance factors have no power to motivate workers. Many hotel managers might agree with this argument, since their early years in the industry were probably characterised by unfavourable maintenance factors, yet they continued their career due to the presence of Herzbergs motivational factors. (Weaver 1988) Another argument of Herzbergs two-factor theory, also known as the motivation-hygiene theory, divides need satisfactions into extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors (e.g. salary, working conditions, and job security) lead to job dissatisfaction if not met, but will not necessarily contribute to job satisfaction when they are met. The intrinsic factors (e.g. work itself, achievement, and recognition) are the actual motivators; they fulfil an individuals need for psychological growth. The extrinsic factors, on the other hand, merely prevent dissatisfaction. (Ko vach 1987) However, the conditions of employment Herzberg views as motivational factors do not apply to the work of hourly employees. (Weaver 1988) Weaver (1988, 41) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Other models attempt to motivate employees by using psychological rewards or punishment or try to increase employees commitment and productivity by generating a sense of team or family spirit within the organization.Ã¢â¬ These models may backfire instead since the overuse of threats or reprimands may serve as a strong force against motivation. Ã¢â¬Å"Hostile and distrusting supervisors can dramatically shape employees working conditions, and, for many employees, can diminish motivation levels,Ã¢â¬ argued Simons and Enz (1995, 23). McGregors Theory X and Theory Y and Ouchis Theory Z describe motivational approaches managers have employed specifically to motivate hourly employees. (Weaver 1988) Theory X operates in the assumption that employees are lazy and have a strong dislike for work. Managers who subscribe to this view believe that employees will not be productive unless they are continually prodded and are punished by disciplinary action or the threat of dismissal for low productivity. Theory Y is based on the assumption that an employees presence at the workplace indicates that he or she is willing to work. Proponents of Theory Y believe that guidance and positive feedback are sufficient to motivate hourly workers to work well. In recent years, many hotel chains have made a conscious change from Theory X to Theory Y management. A change from Theory X management to Theory Y management will generally show positive results, since people respond better to encouragement and compliments than to prodding and punishment. However, workers will not always be willing to put out 100 percent effort just because their supervisor is nice to them. In addition to that, Theory Z is based on the Japanese management model, which focuses on a strong company philosophy and a distinct corporate culture. Companies that develop a motivational model based on Theory Z try to convince employees that they are part of a team or family. Some hotels are instituting such motivational programs. Interestingly, Weaver (1988) found that hotel employees are often more cynical than employees in most other industries, perhaps because they work in an environment where they see how people really behave when they are away from home. Hourly employees in the hotel industry are fully aware of what their interest are and are not easily motivated by programs that they perceive as being nothing but hot air. Lee-Ross (2005, 256-7) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"As long as an individuals job contains sufficient Ã¢â¬Å"contentÃ¢â¬ variables such as skill variety and challenge, an outcome of high motivation and subsequent job satisfaction will result. He also argued that Ã¢â¬Å"the other Ã¢â¬Å"processÃ¢â¬ school contends that these outcomes depend not only on content variable s, but also on how workers evaluate the pros and cons of undertaking a job.Ã¢â¬ Motivation factors including pay, monetary rewards, opportunity for advancement and promotion have been examined in the hotel industry. Also, other motivation factors such as job responsibility, recognition from people, job challenge, feelings of accomplishment, and development of self-esteem have been identified important for hotel employees.(Chiang and Jang 2008; Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation for hotel employees also varies due to their intensive labour work, low pay, image of low status and few opportunities for advancement (Chiang and Jang 2008). In moving across cultures, motivational preferences become even more interesting. The preferences of employees are expected to differ across nations and cultures. (Fisher and Yuan 1998) It is valuable to know exactly what employees value, and whether subgroups of employees have differing pref erences, so that reward systems can be appropriately targeted. Often, superiors misperceive the relative importance of various job characteristics for their employees. Ã¢â¬Å"To the extent that they do (misperceive), they may adopt less than optimal motivation strategies because they misunderstand employees needs and wants.Ã¢â¬ (Fisher and Yuan 1998, 517) The lack of attachment or loyalty plays a large part in the high rate of turnover among hourly employees. It also accounts for the lack of success of motivational efforts based on company loyalty or the promise of career advancement and personal growth within a company. (Weaver 1988) In 1946, industrial employees were asked to rank ten Ã¢â¬Å"job rewardÃ¢â¬ factors in terms of personal preference. The results were as follows: (Kovach 1987, 59) Full appreciation of work done; Feelings of being in on things; Sympathetic help with personal problems; Job security; Good wages; Interesting work; Promotion and growth in the organization; Personal loyalty to employees; Good working conditions; and Tactful discipline. By 1986, the list looked like this: Interesting work; Full appreciation of work done; Feeling of being in on things; Job security; Good wages; Promotion and growth in the organization; Good working conditions; Personal loyalty to employees; Tactful discipline; and Sympathetic help with personal problems. In addition to comparing the employees factor rankings, the survey done in 1986 analysed the employees responses by subgroups (e.g. age and income). The underlying assumption was that the motivational effectiveness of the factors might vary according to gender, age, income level, job type and/or organizational level. (Kovach 1987) The 40 years of studies done by Kovach shaped the belief held by many motivational programs that money does not matter. (Simons and Enz 1995) In addition to that, in 1946 and 1986, supervisors were asked to rank job rewards as they believed employees would rank them. Their rankings remained almost the same for each year: (Kovach 1987, 59) Good wages; Job security; Promotion and growth in the organization; Good working conditions; Interesting work; Personal loyalty to employees; Tactful discipline; Full appreciation of work done; Sympathetic help with personal problems; and Feeling of being in on things. The rankings show that supervisors have a very inaccurate perception of what motivates employees. However, in 1992, the replication done by Wiley (1997, 268) in hotel employees showed a completely different set of rankings: Good wages; Full appreciation of work done; Job security; Promotion and growth in the organization; Interesting work; Personal loyalty to employees; Good working conditions; Tactful discipline; Feeling of being in on things; and Sympathetic help with personal problems. This could be due to the fact that hotel workers differed substantially from industrial workers. This difference in rankings indicates the need for different managerial strategies for motivating hotel workers, relative to those used for industrial workers. Hotel employees ranked good wages first, which may be a result of the relatively low wages of service-sector jobs. (Simons and Enz 1995) A research done by Charles and Marshall (1992) showed that Caribbean hotel workers may not have the same motivational preferences as workers in developed countries. Whereas wages have not been found to be an important motivator in similar research conducted in developed countries, they were ranked highest among this group of Caribbean workers. Proper motivation of employees is vital as it is directly related with productivity and retention. Employees who are content with their jobs, who feel challenged, and who have the opportunity to fulfil their goals will exhibit less destructive behavi our on the job. They will be absent less frequently, they will be less inclined to change jobs, and, most importantly, they will produce at a higher level. (Kovach 1987) Considering the evident relationship between employee and customer satisfaction, different approaches were experimented in the attempt to improve employee satisfaction. Ã¢â¬Å"Predictably, the list was led by compensation, although most anticipate this will become less important in the future. Employee recognition programs, the opportunity for career advancement and exposure to training followed in order of impact.Ã¢â¬ (Cline 1997, 24) The concept that employees may prefer interesting work over good wages is interesting, but the early studies were based on workers in manufacturing industries. It seems very likely that hospitality workers preferences would differ from those of manufacturing workers in important ways (Simons and Enz 1995) as it has been shown in the research done by Wiley in 1997. When try ing to motivate workers, managers often forget that the desire to do the job must come from within the employee and not from the supervisor. The manager can set the stage for motivation to happen, but cannot force motivation to occur. The level of effort and the direction of that effort are set by workers, based on their perceptions of the most rational way to satisfy their personal desires. What managers can do is to take employee desires into account to create an environment where high effort, properly channelled, will give employees some measure of satisfaction. For many hospitality employees, this optimum motivational environment may involve some form of cash incentive and potential for advancement. For others, it will focus on security and good working conditions. In most cases, a positive, respectful work environment has the potential to facilitate employee retention and generally also to set the stage for excellent performance. (Simons and Enz 1995) An interesting point of view by Siu, Tsang, and Wong (1997) explains that job factors that are considered by employees to have the greatest motivating power are usually those that are least present in the job. The ever-changing nature of the hospitality industry has created and reinforced a turnover culture. Employees generally enter the industry with the belief that there is limited career development and promotional opportunity. (Iverson and Deery 1997) Essentially, the human element in the hotel industry constitutes the basic determining factor for effective performance. Because of this reason, hotel management should increase employees interest in their work and develop such organizational structure and management policies as to create need-satisfying environment in which a wider range of employee needs than merely the simply hygiene needs could be satisfied. (Chitiris 1988) Reference List Charles, K. R., and L. H. Marshall. 1992. 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Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Have you ever seen the super hero that wears dark blue and a badge, but not wearing a cape? The person that is here to help in every way possible day or night no matter when or where? The ones who are here during the highest and lowest points for everyone because that is a part of their job. The ones who are here to help the people on this island, but most of the time are treated like the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guysÃ¢â¬ . These undercover heroes are the people we all know as police officers. Many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that they dont have an easy job. They are the ones who need to enforce the laws and are looked at as the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guyÃ¢â¬ , but when they come to the rescue they are the Ã¢â¬Å"good guyÃ¢â¬ . The book Non-traditional Careers for Women states that, Ã¢â¬Å"PoliceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Seatbelts are the most effective means of reducing deaths and serious injuries in traffic crashes. The vast majority of all injuries and deaths from traffic crashes are preventable . Through my survey almost 100% of officers said that many deaths could have been prevented if they were just wearing a seatbelt. This is one ticket that anyway you look at it will help to save your life. Speeding is going any faster than the posted speed limit even one mile over. Police have to make a judgment call as to whether your excessive speed, over the posted speed limit, or your slower pace, is impeding traffic or endangering other drivers, in any way. If this is so they can pull you over and give you a ticket. It may seem like a burden at that moment, but this could save a life and help to keep you and other drivers safe to. A stop sign is a tool used to help prevent accidents from happening. A stop sign is used to control traffic and is usually found at road junctions. Stop signs instruct drivers the right of way and to ensure proper notice is taken to avoid accidents. The word stop is in white on red octagonal design. When you see one at any corner or junction people kno w that they must come to a complete stop, behind the line and can proceed only if the way ahead is clear. This is a simple task but not very many people do it according to Officer Burns. An article in The Garden Island newspaperShow MoreRelatedJoker and Batman Essay9227 Words Ã |Ã 37 PagesWarner) to request more superheroes for their titles. In response, Bob Kane created a character called the Bat-Man. His collaborator Bill Finger offered such suggestions as giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, wearing a cape instead of wings, wearing gloves, and removing the red sections from the original costume. Finger came up with the name Bruce Wayne for the characters secret identity. In Jim Sterankos History of the Comics, vol. 1, Bill Finger reveals, BruceRead MoreOrganizational Beh.3758 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pageso o O L Stephen P. Robbins Ã¢â¬âSan Diego State University Timothy A. Judge Ã¢â¬âUniversity of Notre Dame PEARSON Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Preface 22 1 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 7 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 38 What Managers Do 39 Management Functions 40 Ã¢â¬ ¢ ManagementRead MoreCompare and Contrast Functionalism and Structuralism14315 Words Ã |Ã 58 Pagessometimes show an unwillingness to help others in trouble. Kitty was raped too, and her story stimulated a massive programme of experimental social psychological research into the apparent paradox Ã¢â¬â that the more people who witness an event like this, the less likely it will be that any one of them will do anything about it. This came to be called the Ã¢â¬Ëdiffusion of responsibilityÃ¢â¬â¢ effect (about which you can learn more in Chapter 11). You may be shocked to learn that this story as told by LatanÃ © and DarleyRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesleft blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins Ã¢â¬âSan Diego State University Timothy A. Judge Ã¢â¬âUniversity of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services: Ashley Santora Acquisitions Editor: Brian MickelsonRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 Pagesbiotechs were associated with Ã¢â¬ËbiopharmaceuticalÃ¢â¬â¢ agents, for example recombinant insulin, the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¯ ¬ rst product, launched in 1982. Biopharmaceuticals have very speciÃ¯ ¬ c effects (with arguably greater safety) and, thanks to their complexity, are far less vulnerable to generic competition. As a result, biopharmaceuticals became mainstream Ã¢â¬â contributing a quarter of global sales by 2006 Ã¢â¬â and leading players developed or acquired biological capabilities. Biotechs meanwhile broadened to pursue a huge